关于定义及其关系的澄清

在阅读论文的时候,各种术语和定义以及它们之间的关系给我很大的困扰。所以我决定用文本的方式整理目前所接触到的定义,一方面是自我提升,另一方面是希望对大家有所帮助。

我的原则是一切以文本为基础,所有定义出自The Gender Controversy(Mikkola),The metaphsics Of Gender(Witt)两篇论文。所以这可能不是真正的定义,只是她们认为的定义。如果报道出现了偏差,希望谅解。

ps .手机码字太苦逼了,只写了定义部分,关系部分有时间再写吧。英文句子均为原文。

一、定义

1.biological determinism
描述性:Biological sex traits are thought to pervade every aspect of an individual, down to their social position and intellectual capacities.

规范性:Biological sex traits provide general frame-works for social and political arrangements along gendered lines.

2.gender construction:Ding说很难准确的定义社会构建论,它的含义仅仅是biological determinism描述性定义的否定。mikkola把它分为两种。

(1)causal construction: social forces either have a causal role in bringing gendered individuals into existence, or they (to some substantial sense) shape the way we are qua women and men.

(2)discursive construction:we are gendered the way we are, at least to a substantial extent, because of what is attributed to us by others.

3.essentialism:我在witt和mikkola的论文里都没有找到本质主义的定义。mikkola认为essentialism的定义是非常有争议的。

“However, I will largely avoid this common terminology since feminist usage of the term ‘essentialism’ varies tremendously.”

(1)essentialism等同于biological determinism

Some feminist discussions equate essentialism with biologism.

(2)essentialism等同于kind essentialism/gender realism

Those who would advocate gender essentialism understood as kind essentialism mistake what is social and variable for what is natural and fixed.

注:mikkola认为kind essentialism即gender realism。

I will use “gender realism” to capture the position of classificatory essential-ism.

(3)essentialism分为kind essentialism和individual essentialism

witt认为两者是相互独立的,因为它们要解决的问题不同。

They are conceptually independent of one another because they address distinct philosophical questions.

individual essentialism要解决的问题是:

what makes an individual be the individual that it is?

kind essentialism要解决的问题是:

what is the basis for these groupings?

她用亚里士多德的例子来解释两者的不同。

Aristotle differentiated between men and women (the male and the female) because of their different reproductive functions, but he did not think that either men or women were individuals because of their reproductive functions. Rather, he thought that both men and women were constituted as individuals by virtue of the presence of human soul (conceived of functionally) to their bodies. The human soul (conceived of functionally) is uniessential to both individual men and individual women; but men (as a kind) are defined in terms of the male reproductive function and women (as a kind) are defined in terms of the female reproductive function.

她根据对上述问题“What makes an individual be the individual that it is?”的不同回答,又把individual essentialism分为unification essentialism 和identity essentialsm。

The question—What makes an individual the individual it is?一can be understood in at least two ways, and the two interpretations yield slightly different theories of individual essentialism.

她用房子的例子来说明unification essentialism:

And the answer is that they realize the functional property that defines being a house, which is to shelter humans and animals. Being a shelter for humans and animals is what makes these materials a house rather than a heap of stuff or a sum of parts.

她用讲台的例子来说明identify essentialism:

One answer is that it must be made from the very materials from which it, in fact, originated.If it had originated from a different piece of wood then it would not be this very lectern. Its origins are a necessary property of the lectern.

由此得到unification essentialism的定义:

uniessentialism is a theory about the ontological constitution of unified individuals, and it applies to any unified individual that is made up of parts, including artifacts, organisms, persons, agents, plays, God, and so on.

注意几个点:
①这种个体本质要解决的是本体论问题,而不是因果问题。

It is important to be clear that the question of why a sum of parts makes up a new individual is not a causal question. To use Aristotle’s idiolect, it is important to distinguish between the cause of being (ontological question) and the cause of becoming (causal question).

②这种个体本质是关系属性,不是个体个部分之间的物理关系,而是使各部分形成一个同一整体的关系。这个关系属性不是个体所固有的。

Functional properties are relational rather than intrinsic properties.

The unity of social agents is not a relationship among material parts; it is a relationship of normative unity among our various social position occupancies.

③这种个体本质不仅仅是简单的描述性的,而且是规范性的。所以不能实现其个体本质或目的的个体依然是个体,比如漏水的房子依然是房子。

And finally, functional properties have a normative dimension because the function specifies what that object ought to do, and not simply what it does.
A house with a leaky roof is a house, even if it is defective in relation to its essential task of providing shelter. Because functional properties are normative, it is possible for an individual to have a function that it cannot or does not perform.

witt把这种规范性分为两个方面:

a.对个体的评价取决于其个体本质

At the first level, an individual can be judged as performing its function well or badly; and the function itself provides the norm of judgment.

b.对个体本质的评价取决于外界标准

However, at a second level we can evaluate the function itself, in terms of ethical, political, or religious norms, for example.

identity essentialism的定义是:

For convenience I refer to KripkeS essentialism as identity essentialism, because it uses our intuitions concerning the identity of individuals to determine what their essential properties are.

同样要注意的几个点:

①这种个体本质要解决的是本体论问题,而不是因果问题。(和unification essentialism相同)

It is important to see that Kripke is not asking us to imagine what changes an artifact like the lectern could undergo and still persist. Rather than thinking temporally about change, we are to think modally, about possibility and necessity.

②这种个体本质是模态属性,准确说是模态属性中的必然属性,它是物体所固有的。

Identity essentialism is intimately connected with modality; an individual’s essential properties are its necessary properties.

这种必要属性又被分为三类:
a.properties of origin
b.sortal properties
c.properties of substance

Kripke classifies the necessary properties of individuals into three sorts: properties of origin (a material object must come from the very hunk of matter it did come from), sortal properties (being a lectern is a necessary property of a lectern), properties of substance (a material object must be made from the kind of matter it is in fact made from).

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非常棒的总结!以下是我的补充&评论。

(1) Mikkola 很明确地认为 biological determinism 既是描述性的也是规范性的 (p. 22: “not only to explain behavioral differences between women and men, but also to inform our social and political arrangements.”)。但也许可以有纯描述性的 biological determinism(尤其是生物学、神经科学的某些进路)。纯规范性的 biological determinism 似乎困难一些,但也不是完全不可能。

(2) 除了 causal construction 和 discursive construction,Mikkola 还介绍了 constitutive construction (p. 26)。这三种意义上的 social construction 是 Sally Haslanger 区分的 (Haslanger, 1995, “Ontology and Social Construction”)。群文件里有这篇论文,我们还没有机会一起阅读和讨论。

(3) ① 这段引用超有趣,Witt(身为亚里士多德学者)居然会说 uniessentialism 不是因果问题…我猜她是有考虑读者并不一定都熟悉亚里士多德的四因说。这段话似乎只是在讲 uniessentialism 不关心 efficient cause,如果 Witt 说她的 functional essence 不是 final cause 我是不信的()

② 这里提到的 social agents 是当术语来用的。在后文中,Witt 区分了 human organism、person 与 social individual。我们每个人都是 human organism + person + social individual 的组合,但只有 social individuals 才能 occupy social positions & perform social roles;而且 social individual 与 biology 无关(biology 只与 human organism 有关)。

找了一下functional essence是final cause的原文。
A functional essence is an essential property that explains what the individual is for, what its purpose is, and that organizes the parts toward that end.

不知道能不能把identity essentialism的necessary essence看作是material cause。

唔…是个有趣的问题,我没有这样想过。也许“properties of substance”可以说成是material cause,properties of origin 和 sortal properties 似乎不行