从零开始学知识论

先简单地自我介绍一下吧,我是alex,没有哲学相关背景,最近在辅导学生和建立个人知识体系的过程里产生了对知识论的兴趣。在豆瓣上看到了这个论坛,发现特别适合严肃的哲学讨论,于是就注册了账号。

大家多是哲学专业的学生,这里的很多讨论都需要一定的知识积累,而且每个人都有自己的关注领域,如果领域不重合似乎不太容易擦出火花。我个人的经验是如果自己学到的知识需要拿来教别人,无论是口头上讲还是写成文字,都能让自己的理解更加透彻。但把自己研究的内容讲得清楚明白是不太容易的,尤其是在对方没有任何背景的时候。

YouTube上有一个 playlist 叫 5 levels,他们请了一些研究人员对5个不同的群体(child, teen, college student, grad student, expert)解释科学概念。在全新领域积累知识的过程就像逐渐经历从小孩到专家的认知水平一样,只不过时间上要快很多,不会花那么久。让我感到惊喜的是,就算是两个专家的对话,也能感到他们在互相学习。一方面可能是因为研究领域的侧重不一样,另一方面可能是因为思维方式的差异。

所以我想把从零学习知识论的这个过程记录下来,由浅入深地探索应该会花很久,也不着急,一边学,一边想。其中可能会栽跟头,进入理解误区,希望大家能多多帮助和指正。

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这里用来放一些资源链接

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(今天第一次写想法,因为阅读材料是英文的,想法就用英文写好了)

2020.week44

In First Meditation: On what can be called into doubt., Descartes concluded that the assumption where his former opinions are “utterly false and imaginary” was necessary to avoid being deceived by what he had learned before.

The belief that we, human beings, exist is mostly based on our senses. The world we believe we live in is made up of things we see, things we hear, and things we feel every day. But what if these senses are merely created by the imagination of our brains. How could one distinguish if he is in a dream or reality? Descartes argued that although there wasn’t a reliable way, the imagination must come from real things. He continued, “studies of the simplest and most general things” such as arithmetic and geometry were relatively certain and indubitable, whereas “sciences dealing with things that have complex structures” were doubtful, including physics, astronomy, medicine, etc. During the development of the knowledge of humankind, a deeper understanding of the universe came from the questions and doubts about the old beliefs, it is reasonable to raise educated doubt about any of the former beliefs.